HONOURABLE MENTION

Plant Cells VS Animal Cells

Comparison between plant cells and animal cells, difference and similarities in the structure, parts & functions
Sama Eltokhy
Grade 5

Problem

If we compare plant cells and animal cells, then there would be more similarities than differences because they mostly have the same purpose of function

  • some of the similarities are like presence of a cell membrane, and cell organelles , like the nucleus, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (they are both eukaryotic cells)

  • the cells differ in their shape as animal cells are mostly round and any regular in shape Meanwhile plant cells have fixed, rectangular shapes and what cells have a cell wall , coroplast and the cell membrane while animal cells don't have those organelle

Method

I used a variety of sources in my research, some of which including the Gd. 8 textbook, the internet and library books. I have gone over the top to make sure that my research is accurate after I have gotten an interesting piece of information I will make sure that the piece of information is accurate. I have covered all vital information differences and similarities of the plant and animal cells. I saw two points of perspective. 

Research

What is the difference between plant cells and animal cells?

Data

ANIMALS CELLS VS PLANT CELLS

 

Cells

If you want to learn about plant cells and animal cells and their differences, then you might as well want to learn about cells. Here is a brief introduction about cells.

•Cells are in all living things.

•All cells are so small that you can only see them with a microscope. Cells have different components, and each performs its own function within the cell. Cells come in a variety of different sizes.

•Cells are the basic building blocks of all animals and plants. Inside cells are various Structures that are specialized to carry out a particular function.

•All living things are made up of cells. Cells are the basic unit of a living organism and where all life processes are carried out.

•Animal cells and plant cells share the common components of a nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, and a cell membrane.

•Plant cells have three extra components, a vacuole, chloroplast, and a cell wall.

•Plant and animal cells are eukaryotic but there are cells that are prokaryotic.

Animal Cells (background research)

Each part of every organism is made up of tiny cells. A cell is the smallest unit of life. The cells are so tiny that you need to use a microscope. More cells mean bigger animals. A cell profiles the basic structure and functions of every living thing. Each animal cell works 24 hours, 7 days a week. It takes food and gives off the waste products. Some work is responsible for all the life process that keeps animals alive and healthy

 

Animal cell structure

Inside the cell, there are a lot of parts. The most important parts are the cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. A cell membrane acts like a skin of the cell and a security system. And most importantly holds the cell together. The nucleus is the cell's command center. Each part of the cell gets instruction from the nucleus. The cytoplasm is a Jelly fluid that surrounds the nucleus. It fills the rest of the cell. The rest of the parts in the cell are Nuclear envelope, Nucleus, Plasma membrane, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, Secretion being released from the cell by exocytosis (pinocytotic vesicle), Peroxisome, Intermediate filament, Microtubule, Microfilament, Microvilli, Centrosome matrix, Centrioles, Mitochondrion, Lysosomes, Cytosol, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Glycosmis, Nucleolus, and Chromatin. An animal cell is usually smaller than a plant cell and is an oval-shaped cell.

Plant cells (background research)

No matter how they vary, every single plant is made of a basic building blocks-a cell. The smallest unit of life is a cell. It provides the basic structure and function for plans and every other living thing most cells are so tiny it takes a microscope to see them. The bigger this plant, the more cells it has. A single Maple tree has trillions of cells. Each cell is a self-contained unit.  A plant cell is constantly working. It makes food and releases energy from food to power different life processes. It gives off waste products, such as water vapor and oxygen. Plant cells are constantly dividing to grow deeper roots, taller stems, or new buds, seeds, and fruits. Each plant cell has its own job. For example, special cells in the stem carry water up from the roots. Green cells in the leaves make food. How cells are range and what jobs do create the difference is from plant to plant. Plant cells form the basis of life on earth. Cells of green plants, I'm like animal cells, make their own food using energy from sunlight. Plants trap the sun's energy which becomes the basis of food chains. Some animals eat plants for food. Other animals eat plant-eating animals. The energy from the sun used by plants to make food is passed along from plant cells to animal cells. As plants make their own food, they also give off oxygen. Both plants and animals need oxygen to live. By forming the basis of food chains and making energy, plant cells make life on earth possible. 

Plant cell structure

Inside the cell, there are a lot of parts. The most important parts are the cell wall, cell membrane, and coroplast. a cell all has openings connected from 1 cell to another this allows water, food, and nutrients to flow freely throughout the plan. Cell walls are thick and strong they also protect plant cells and make them sturdy. They allow plants to grow tall without any bones to hold them. the cell membrane is soft, stretchy skin holds the cell together. It also accesses the cell security system. It monitors what passes in and out of the cell. The last thing is coroplast, chloroplast is what makes the plant screen in chloroplasts there's something called photosynthesis. The other parts of the plant cell are Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body (Golgi apparatus), Golgi vesicles, Cytoplasm, Peroxisome, Mitochondrion (mitochondria), Vacuole, Tonoplast, Chloroplast, Thylakoid membrane, Starch grain, Plasma membrane, Cell wall, Plasmodesmata, Filamentous cytoskeleton, Small membranous vesicles, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Ribosomes, Nucleus, Nuclear pore, Nuclear envelope, and Nucleolus. There are other parts too.

 

COMPARE AND CONTRAST

This is where I will find the actual similarities and differences between animal cells and plant cells. This is where I will include most of my research

Organelles

Animal

The parts in the cell are Nuclear envelope, Nucleus, Plasma membrane, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, Secretion being released from the cell by exocytosis (pinocytotic vesicle), Peroxisome, Intermediate filament, Microtubule, Microfilament, Microvilli, Centrosome matrix, Centrioles, Mitochondrion, Lysosomes, Cytosol, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Glycosmis, Nucleolus, and Chromatin.

Plant

The parts of the plant cell are Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body (Golgi apparatus), Golgi vesicles, Cytoplasm, Peroxisome, Mitochondrion (mitochondria), Vacuole, Tonoplast, Chloroplast, Thylakoid membrane, Starch grain, Plasma membrane, Cell wall, Plasmodesmata, Filamentous cytoskeleton, Small membranous vesicles, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Ribosomes, Nucleus, Nuclear pore, Nuclear envelope, and Nucleolus.

Animal Organelles functions

Cell Membrane - A double layer that supports and protects the cell. Allows materials in and out.

Lysosome - contains digestive enzymes that destroy damaged organelles and invaders.

Cytoplasm - Jelly-like fluid that surrounds and protects the organelles.

Nucleus - The control center of the cell. Contains the DNA Nuclear Membrane Surrounds the nucleus.

Nucleolus - A round structure in the nucleus that makes ribosomes.

Vacuole - Stores food and water.

Golgi - Body Processes and packages materials for the cell.

Mitochondria -The “Powerhouse”. Breaks down food to produce energy in the form of ATP.

Rough E.R. - Builds and transports substances through the cell. Has ribosomes on it.

Smooth E.R. - Builds and transports substances through the cell. Does not have ribosomes.

Ribosome - Helps make protein for the cell.

 

Plant Organelles functions

Cell Membrane - A double layer that supports and protects the cell. Allows materials in and out.

The lysosome contains - digestive enzymes that destroy damaged organelles and invaders.

Cytoplasm - Jelly-like fluid that surrounds and protects the organelles.

Nucleus - The control center of the cell. Contains the DNA

Nuclear - Membrane Surrounds the nucleus.

Nucleolus - A round structure in the nucleus that makes ribosomes.

Vacuole - Store food and water. Golgi Body Processes and packages materials for the cell.

Mitochondria - The “Powerhouse”. Breaks down food to produce energy in the form of ATP.

Rough E.R. - Builds and transports substances through the cell. Has ribosomes on it.

Smooth E.R. - Builds and transports substances through the cell. Does not have ribosomes.

Ribosome - Helps make protein for the cell.

Cell Wall - Gives shape and protection to plant cells.

Chloroplast - Change sunlight into sugar for plant cells. Contains a green pigment called chlorophyll

 

Similarities in cell structures

They both contain membrane-bound organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and peroxisomes. Both also contain similar membranes, cytosol, and cytoskeletal elements. They are both eukaryotic cells.

 

Differences in cell structure 

Plant cells can be larger than animal cells. The normal range for an animal cell varies from 10 to 30 micrometers while that for a plant cell stretches from 10 to 100 micrometers. Beyond size, the main structural differences between plant and animal cells lie in a few additional structures found in plant cells. These structures include chloroplasts, the cell wall, and vacuoles.

Different cell types in animals

Different cell types in animals are:

•Skin cells
•Blood cells
•Muscle cells
•Nerve cells
•Fat cells
•Stem cells
•Intestinal cells
 

Different cell types in plants

Different cell types in plants are :

•Parenchyma cells
•Collenchyma cells
•Sclerenchyma cells
•Xylem cells
•Phloem cells
•Meristematic cells
•Epidermal cells
 

Important cells in a human

These are the important cells in a human:

  • Skin cells
  • Blood cells
  • Muscle cells
  • Nerve cells
  • Fat cells 
  • Bone cells
  • Sperm cells
  • Female egg cells
  • Sex cells 
  • Cancer cells
  • Pancreatic cells
  • Endothelial cells

 

Important cells in a leaf

These are the important cells in a leaf:

•Palisade Mesophyll cell
•Spongy Mesophyll cell
•Vascular Bundle cell
•Epidermis cell
•Guard cell
•Xylem cell
•Phloem cell

 

 

 
 
 

Conclusion

In conclusion, the main differences between plant and animal cells are their shape as animal cells are mostly round and any regular in shape Meanwhile plant cells have fixed, rectangular shapes and what cells have a cell wall, coroplast and the cell membrane while animal cells don't have those organelles

Citations

Both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic, so they contain membrane-bound organelles like the nucleus and mitochondria

Acknowledgement

People:

Nour Eltokhy (My sister)

Amira Ali (My Mom)

Ahmed Eltokhy (My Dad)